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Cerita Lubdaka dan Makna Filosofis Siwaratri

Cerita Lubdaka
            Dalam Kakawin Siwaratrikalpa karya Mpu Tanakung diceritakan bahwa, suatu hari tepatnya pada hari panglong 14 sasih ke-7 (hari ke 14 bulan mati pada sasih ke tujuh), seorang pemburu bernama Lubdaka pagi-pagi seperti biasa ia meninggalkan rumahnya untuk berburu ke hutan. Setelah tiba di hutan, ia mulai menyiapkan busur dan anak panahnya menantikan sasaran buruannya. Pada hari ini tidak seekor binatangpun yang muncul; hal ini sebelumnya tidak pernah terjadi. Jam berganti jam, hingga mendekati malam ia masih berputar-putar, namun tidak satupun binatang buruan yang dapat ditemuinya. Malam semakin larut lebih-lebih kelebatan hutan semakin menambah kegelapan suasana. Keadaan hutan semakin gelap sehingga ia mulai merasakan takut kalau berjalan di tengah kegelapan seperi itu, dan akhirnya ia memutuskan untuk tinggal/naik di atas pohon. Takut akan tertidur, lalu jatuh dan menjadi mangsa binatang hutan, ia tetap berjaga-jaga semalaman itu. Agar tidak tidur, ia pun memetik daun-daun pohon maja/bila dan menjatuhkannya ke air danau. Daun-daun itu jatuh di atas sebuah lingga Siwa (nora ginawe), dan dengan  tidak diketahui daun-daun maja itu jatuh ditempat itu. Ketika matahari mulai muncul di ufuk timur yang menandai malam telah berganti pagi, turunlah ia dari pohon dan kembali pulang dengan tangan hampa. Hari demi hari berlalu, kehidupan berlangsung seperti biasanya, tetapi beberapa tahun kemudian Lubdaka jatuh sakit, dan tak lama kemudian ia pun meninggal. Jenasahnya segera dibuatkan upacara sebagai mana layaknya (ngaben), sedangkan atmanya (rohnya) melayang-layang diangkasa tidak mengetahui jalan yang mesti ditempuh. Yama memerintahkan abdinya (Kingkara) supaya menangkap jiwa Lubdaka untuk dihadapkan kepadanya dan sekaligus akan disiksa atas semua kejahatan yang ia lakukan selama di dunia. Dilain pihak Siwa juga memerintahkan abdinya (Gana) untuk menghadapkan jiwa Lubdaka kepadanya.   Terjadilah pertempuran sengit antara Kingkara dengan Gana, dan pertempuran itu dimenangkan oleh Gana – abdi Siwa. Jiwa Lubdaka dibawa oleh Gana dengan kereta surgawi dan menghadapkannya kepada Siwa. Siwa menyambutnya dengan ramah, memuji Lubdaka karena telah menghormati malam Siwa (dengan melek/tidak tidur semalam suntuk); dan sekaligus ia mendapatkan anugrah tertinggi kenikmatan surgawi dari Siwa. Ketika Yama melihat anak buahnya – Kingkara dalam keadaan menyedihkan dan mendengar bagaimana mereka gagal dalam melaksanakan tugasnya, maka rasa marah Yama meluap. Yama ingin mengundurkan diri, karena Siwa dianggap menghalanginya dalam melaksanakan  tugas yang telah dipercayakan kepadanya.Yama kemudian pergi ke gunung Kailasa menghadap Siwa.  Siwa selanjutnya menjelaskan kepada Yama bahwa pada zaman purba Ia pernah mengajarkan bagaimana malam Siwa harus dihormati; upacara itu demikian suci sehingga dapat membersihkan segala noda dan dosa. Tetapi tidak seorangpun lagi pernah melakukan upacara itu. Lubdakalah yang pertama-tama melakukannya kendatipun tanpa disadarinya, dan sewajarnya kini ia mendapat pahalanya. Akhirnya Yama mengerti setelah mendapatkan penjelasan Siwa, dan sekaligus memohon maaf  kepadanya, setelah itu Yama pulang.
Makna Filosofis SiwaratriDalam konsep Trisakti Siwa disebut ’yang melenyapkan’. Ratri artinya malam atau gelap. Ini berkaitan dengan pandangan mata. Dalam bahasa rohani artinya ’gelap ketidaktahuan’ (awidya). Tilem kepitu (peteng pitu) adalah tujuh kegelapan yang bisa menyebabkan orang mabuk/lupa daratan; karena ketampanan/kemolekan, karena harta benda, merasa mampu, merasa keturunan tinggi; karena mabuk tidak memanfaatkan masa muda untuk kegiatan-kegiatan produktif, terlibat pada minuman keras dan mabuk kemenangan.Jika ketujuh kegelapan (mentalitas ekstrem) itu berkumpul menjadi satu dengan rajas, tamas dan ahamkara di dalam diri seseorang, akan menjadi ragadhi (rajanya ego). Istilah ini diberikan oleh Rsi Walmiki (Ramayana),  yang maknanya musuh terdekat manusia yang bermukim di hati. Di dalam ragadhi, berakumulasi banyak sekali nafsu buruk yang memproduksi berbagai perilaku buruk. Semua ini bermula dari ratri yang memanifestasikan dirinya dalam ’gelap ketidaktahuan’ itu, membuat orang menjadi dungu, bodoh (awidya), lupa terhadap kemanusiawian milik sejatinya. Karena itu tentu saja lupa terhadap Tuhan. Maka dari itu Mpu Tanakung, pujangga sastra religius yang bijak itu berseru : Siwalah Ratri itu! Artinya ”lenyapkanlah gelap ketidaktahuan itu sampai tuntas”. Mpu Tanakung juga tidak kepalang tanggung menyamakan ratri sebagai binatang-binatang sangat berbahaya di dalam hutan, yang harus dibunuh semuanya. Kata ”Lubdaka” dalam bahasa sansekerta berarti pemburu, yang diburu adalah binatang. Nama lain dari binatang adalah sattwa. Kata sattwa berasal dari kata sat dan twa.  Kata sat berarti ’inti yang mulia’ atau ’hakikat’, kata twa berarti sifat. Jadi kata sattwa berarti ”bersifat inti atau hakikat”. Dengan demikian yang bernama Lubdaka itu adalah pelukisan orang yang selalu mengejar atau mencari ’inti hakikat yang mulia’. Suatu hari di tengah malam gelap gulita, Lubdaka disebutkan ’naik’ ke puncak pohon bila, dan memetik-metik daun pohon bila (sejumlah 108 lembar). Jelas pohon ini adalah bahasa simbul – arti khiasan bikinan yang dipajang Mpu Tanakung sebagai dekorasi di atas panggung pentas drama ini. Sesungguhnya Lubdaka tidak naik ke puncak pohon manapun. Dia berada di kamar yang suci di depan sebuah tempat pemujaan (altar), atau di suatu tempat tertentu yang dia pilih, dalam sikap meditasi sempurna (maha samadhi). Yang naik bukan Lubdaka (secara fisik), tetapi kesadaran spiritualnya. Kesadaran tingkat transendental inilah yang diburu sang pemburu – Lubdaka, dan dia berhasil ’naik’ ke puncak kesadaran tertinggi (Paramarthika), tidak tidur sekejappun. Orang yang tidak tidur berarti sadar, disebut tan aturu, tan mereme, atangi atau atutur. Secara spiritual orang yang dikatakan turu dan lupa menurut ajaran Siwa adalah orang yang dibelenggu dan yang hanya menuruti hawa nafsu (raga) atau indriyanya. Lubdaka telah dapat mengendalikan dirinya atau aturu menjadi atangi yaitu menemukan kesadaran akan Sang Diri, sehingga akhirnya dia mendapatkan anugrah dari Dewa Siwa. Daun bila 108 dapat dijabarkan sebagai berikut : 1(satu) menyatakan tunggal (esa), 8 simbul maya (alam semesta) yang relatif. Ketika semua daun (108) ini dipetik satu demi satu dan dijatuhkan tanpa sengaja oleh Lubdaka, tepat mengenai serta berkumpul di punggung Siwa. Artinya, dalam sadana rohani yang tengah memuncak  seperti ini, Lubdaka tidak memiliki motivasi apa pun, dia ada dalam situasi niskama karma, pasrah total  (saranagati). Kemudian yang terjadi adalah 108 menjadi 9 menyatakan Brahman/Siwa, simbul sangat suci dalam kesadaran mitologi Hindu. Menguak simbul-simbul ini maka sedikitpun tidak ragu bahwa Lubdaka adalah aktor imajener yang diejawantah pengarang sebagai seorang pemburu yang kejam, membunuh semua binatang yang dalam kata Sansekerta disebut sattwa. Dalam konteks Siwaratri, binatang ini harus diartikan sifat-sifat ’kebinatangan’. Ketika sifat-sifat ’kebinatangan’ dalam dirinya dibinasakan oleh Lubdaka, dia pun dalam dirinya mendapat sattwa, aspek utama Triguna yang mengatasi Rajas (sifat egoistis) dan Tamas (sifat dungu).Banyak yang beranggapan bahwa Siwaratri adalah malam peleburan dosa. Anggapan ini muncul mungkin karena pemahaman yang kurang tepat tentang cerita sang lubdaka yang katanya adalah pembunuh namun terbebas dari dosa karena bergadang saat malam Siwaratri.  Dalam ajaran Hindu tidak ada peleburan dosadosa adalah hasil perbuatan (karma) yang harus tetap ditebus oleh akibat (phala) berpijak pada keyakinan dasar Hindu, yaitu hukum Karma. Kesalahan yang dilakukan oleh perbuatan nyata harus ditebus dengan perbuatan nyata. Penebusan ’dosa’ dengan tindakan ritual, seperti begadang semalam suntuk, puasa untuk waktu tertentu atau mengucapkan kalimat-kalimat pengakuan tertentu, dipandang dari substansi hukum karma, hanya berfungsi sebagai catharsis (bahasa yunani = penyucian atau pembebasan emosi melalui seni, terutama yang bersifat tragedi). Ritual seperti ini bilamana diartikan secara harfiah bisa menjadi obat penenang yang sangat berbahaya : orang boleh melakukan apa saja demi kepentingan pribadi (misalnya menyalah gunakan kekuasaan), karena dengan melakukan ritual dengan saleh dan taat, pada waktu-waktu tertentu, dosa atau kesalahan itu sudah hapus. Keyakinan semacam ini sama sekali tidak menguntungkan bagi usaha pembentukan ethos kerja, karena membuat manusia meremehkan tanggung jawab. Ritual-ritual seperti itu pada dasarnya hanyalah satu sarana-sarana yang penting untuk pembentukan pribadi melalui olah rohani. Dan ia akan bermanfaat bilamana ini kemudian terefleksi dalam perbuatan nyata.Kalau kita memperlakukan Siwaratri semacam biografi atau otobiografi dari Lubdaka, artinya sebagai apa yang terbaca seperti terkesan selama ini (hanya dengan begadang maka dosa – dosa akan hilang), orang tidak akan memperoleh menfaat apapun dari karya agung yang dikemas beragam simbolisme nan bermakna tinggi ini.
Siwaratri Sebagai Hari Raya Secara harfiah Siwaratri berarti malam Siwa. Siwaratri jatuh pada hari Caturdasi kresnapaksa/panglong ping 14 sasih ke-7. Saat ini umat Hindu (tidak semuanya), mengadakan kebaktian memuja dan memuji kebesaran Tuhan/Siwa. Ada dengan cara membaca kitab-kitab suci di Pura-Pura, rumah-rumah dan tempat-tempat tertentu; individual (menyendiri) atau kerkelompok; ada yang menggelar Akanda bhajan bersama di Mandir-Mandir dengan cara menyanyikan lagu-lagu pujian secara bergantian sampai pagi (akhanda bhajan). Arti lain juga diberikan orang kepada Siwaratri sebagai malam perenungan dosa, (bukan peleburan dosa), dengan tujuan tercapainya kesadaran diri, dengan cara Brata. Ada 3 jenis Brata pada hari raya Siwaratri terdiri dari:

1.   Utama, melaksanakan:

a)     Monabrata (berdiam diri dan tidak berbicara).

b)     Upawasa (tidak makan dan tidak minum).

c)      Jagra (berjaga, tidak tidur).

2.   Madhya, melaksanakan:
a)     Upawasa.

b)     Jagra (berjaga, tidak tidur)

3.   Nista, hanya melaksanakan Jagra (berjaga, tidak tidur)Dengan demikian

Siwaratri dimaksudkan memberikan motivasi pada setiap umat Hindu untuk selalu sadar dengan berusaha semaksimal mungkin menghindari perbuatan dosa dan selalu beriktiar untuk memperbanyak perbuatan dharma.***

(http://kdarmita.blogspot.com/2018/01/cerita-lubdaka-dan-makna-filosofis.html)

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948 thoughts on “Cerita Lubdaka dan Makna Filosofis Siwaratri

  1. Dalam Kakawin Siwaratrikalpa karya Mpu Tanakung diceritakan bahwa, suatu hari tepatnya pada hari panglong 14 sasih ke-7 (hari ke 14 bulan mati pada sasih ke tujuh), seorang pemburu bernama Lubdaka pagi-pagi seperti biasa ia meninggalkan rumahnya untuk berburu ke hutan.

  2. 1. Utama, melaksanakan:

    a) Monabrata (berdiam diri dan tidak berbicara).

    b) Upawasa (tidak makan dan tidak minum).

    c) Jagra (berjaga, tidak tidur).

    2. Madhya, melaksanakan:
    a) Upawasa.

    b) Jagra (berjaga, tidak tidur)

    3. Nista, hanya melaksanakan Jagra (berjaga, tidak tidur)Dengan demikian

  3. Siwaratri Sebagai Hari Raya Secara harfiah Siwaratri berarti malam Siwa. Siwaratri jatuh pada hari Caturdasi kresnapaksa/panglong ping 14 sasih ke-7. Saat ini umat Hindu (tidak semuanya), mengadakan kebaktian memuja dan memuji kebesaran Tuhan/Siwa
    Ada 3 jenis Brata pada hari raya Siwaratri terdiri dari:

    1. Utama, melaksanakan:

    a) Monabrata (berdiam diri dan tidak berbicara).

    b) Upawasa (tidak makan dan tidak minum).

    c) Jagra (berjaga, tidak tidur).

    2. Madhya, melaksanakan:
    a) Upawasa.

    b) Jagra (berjaga, tidak tidur)

    3. Nista, hanya melaksanakan Jagra (berjaga, tidak tidur)Dengan demikian

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